Friday, August 21, 2020

Strategic Planning Theories Essay Example

Vital Planning Theories Paper DBA 822 Seminars in Strategy and International Business Strategic Planning Theories A Literature Review By; Benjamin J. Shuford III 8/24/10 Introduction: Strategic arranging is an expansive idea that has been brought into the standard acts of today’s organizations. Key arranging can be characterized as an organization’s procedure of characterizing objectives, heading, and dynamic procedures that impact the portion of assets that incorporate capital and individuals. The term â€Å"strategy† is gotten from the Greek expression of â€Å"strategos,† which implies actually, â€Å"general of the military. (Hart, 1965). The Greek clans of old civic establishments would choose a strategos to head their regiments during fights. These political rulers would follow the key counsel from the board individuals about overseeing troops to win fights. From its initial military roots on winning fights to turning into an example of purposes and strategies that characterize an organization and its business, vital arranging has become the essential focal point of today’s different associations. There are numerous hypotheses that are utilized to portray how associations see the vital arranging process. These procedures are encircled as models that are reliably being changed to fit the requirements of an association. This writing audit will concentrate on a portion of these models and the scholars who created them. This writing audit will survey hypotheses from Igor Ansoff, Henry Mintzberg, Michael Porter, and Kenichi Ohmae. The reason will be to increase a superior comprehension of how these hypotheses shape authoritative presentation. An investigation will be led to assess the act of and the future course of these speculations. The decision to audit these four scholars over the entirety of the others is a direct result of their heritage and vigorous commitments to the field of key administration. Ansoff was perhaps the soonest author on system as an administration discipline, and established solid frameworks for a few later essayists to expand after, including Michael Porter, Gary Hamel and C K Prahalad. He designed the cutting edge way to deal with methodology and his work arranged different thoughts and divergent strands of thought, giving another rationality and order to the idea he depicted as key arranging. We will compose a custom exposition test on Strategic Planning Theories explicitly for you for just $16.38 $13.9/page Request now We will compose a custom article test on Strategic Planning Theories explicitly for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Recruit Writer We will compose a custom article test on Strategic Planning Theories explicitly for you FOR ONLY $16.38 $13.9/page Recruit Writer A discussion among Ansoff and Henry Mintzberg over their contrasting perspectives on technique was reflected in print over numerous years, especially in the Harvard Business Review. Ansoff has regularly been scrutinized by Mintzberg, who hated the possibility of methodology being worked from arranging which is upheld by explanatory strategies. This analysis depended on the conviction that Ansoffs dependence on arranging experienced three paradoxes: that occasions can be anticipated, that vital reasoning can be isolated from operational administration, and that hard information, examination and methods can create novel systems. The key arranging/the board speculations of Porter and Ohmae were gotten from both Ansoff and Mentzberg. Ansoff was the originator of the vital administration idea, and was liable for setting up vital arranging as an administration movement. The Strategic Planning Process: Because of high serious business conditions, associations must take part in vital arranging forms that plainly characterize and express the targets of the association. They should evaluate both outer and inward factors to create and execute a system to remain serious. They have to assess the procedure and make required changes in accordance with remain on target. As they continued looking for wellsprings of manageable upper hand, scientists have come to understand that business execution depends not just on the definition and effective usage of a given methodology yet in addition on the procedure by which serious positions are made or kept up. Mintzberg was one of the first to bring up that the acknowledged methodology of an association can emphatically vary from the planned procedure and that the degree to which an expected system can be acknowledged is firmly identified with the key procedure that exist inside the association (Mintzberg, 1987). In his initial work, he distinguished three fundamental sorts of methodology forms: arranging, pioneering and learning-by-understanding. He depicted arranging as a philosophical methodology when he orders key business thinking in ten ways of thinking, which he portrays in their chronicled and ideological setting. Early scholar, for example, Igor Ansoff, concentrated on the systematic parts of procedure development. The initial three schools in Mintzberg’s scientific categorization are in this manner prescriptive and center around how methodology should be defined. One of the significant premises of the prescriptive schools if the exhibition guarantee, which expresses that the more an association participates in orderly key arranging, the more probable it will result in better than expected returns. The prescriptive schools have been compelling in the talk of methodology definition, however have neglected to clarify the procedure of system execution (Mintzberg, 1990). Mintzbergs School of Strategic Thought (Mintzberg and Lampel, 1990). | School| Category| Foundation| | Design| Prescriptive| Engineering| | Planning| Prescriptive| Systems Theory| | Positioning| Prescriptive| Economics| | Entrepreneurial| Descriptive| Economics| | Cognitive| Descriptive| Psychology| | Learning| Descriptive| Psychology| | Power| Descriptive| Political Science| | Cultural| Descriptive| Anthropology| | Environmental| Descriptive| Biology| | Configuration| Both| History| | The Design school characterizes procedure arrangement as a procedure of origination. It started during the late 1950s and mid-1960s. This school puts accentuation on an examination of outer condition and the interior circumstance utilizing the great SWOT investigation (Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats). Likewise molding technique definition are the estimations of the organization’s the board and an appraisal of the organization’s social duties (Selznick, 1957). The Planning school recognized technique arrangement as a proper procedure. It developed in the mid 1960. It has brought about a plenty of key arranging models. The basic establishment of these models is direct: partition the SWOT model into conveniently outlined advances. Step1 †Set destinations †Establish and qualify objectives or goal of the association. Stage 2-External Audits †Assess the outside condition, utilizing the SWOT investigation, and make a lot of gauges about what's to come. Stage 3 †Internal reviews †Typically this procedure is helped by agendas and tables of point to consider. Stage 4 †Strategy assessment †Organizations can utilize an assortment of procedures going from return on nvestment (ROI), to hazard investigation, to figuring investor esteem. Stage 5 †Strategy usage †This progression makes an exceptionally nitty gritty and formalized activity plan. Targets, procedures, spending plans, and projects are totally united into an all-inclusive strategy. The Positioning School characterizes methodology development as an explanatory procedure. This school started during the 1980s and was well known because of the idea of serious procedure structures that were distinguished as five powers on an organization’s situation by Michael Porter. The criticalness of this school is that it underscored the significance of systems to some random industry. The Entrepreneurial school takes a gander at procedure arrangement as a visionary procedure. This way of thinking created during the 1990s and utilizing vision as a focal beginning stage. Vision builds up the expansive ability to read a compass while protecting adaptability to adjust to evolving conditions. One of the supporters of the innovative school is Peter Drucker, who recognizes enterprise with the executives itself: â€Å"Central to business undertaking is†¦ the pioneering demonstration, a demonstration of financial hazard taking. What's more, business endeavor is an enterprising institution† (Drucker, 1970). The Cognitive school characterized system development as a psychological procedure and began in the mid 1990s. This school centers around the brain of the planner, drawing from the field of intellectual brain research. There is an enormous group of research that recommends that people experience an assortment of issues in settling on choices that impact numerous circumstances in the administration procedure since they are hard to change and structure once executed. People who practice this school find that they each have distinctive intellectual styles that can twist dynamic procedures. The Learning school characterizes methodology development as a rising procedure. It began in the mid 1990s and follows the point of view that individuals inside an association figure out how to utilize the organization’s capacities to change and adjust in a positive way so as to react to an evolving domain (Quinn, 1980). This school is less worried about the genuine procedure that was figured than with what it took to get a system actualized. The Power school, which started in the late 1980s, characterizes procedure development as a procedure of arrangement and depends on the idea that the impact of intensity from the outside condition will influence any association, and much of the time governmental issues will implant an association. This school sees methodology as a political procedure that centers around union structure, domain building, planning, mastery, insurrection, counterinsurgency, lor

Tuesday, July 14, 2020

How to Write an Argumentative Essay Effectively

How to Write an Argumentative Essay Effectively How to Write an Argumentative Essay With the advent of spring final exams that are looming on the horizon you are bound to write more essays that usual. In most cases, you will be given an assignment to write an argumentative essay. It is one of the most challenging types of writing. Unlike other essays, it requires more than a mere description of an event, service or a product. Nor is it a narrative. An argumentative essay requires thorough research and a particular line of thought. Let us consider characteristics and peculiarities of argumentative essays. Argumentative essay definition So, what is an argumentative essay? An online study defines argumentative essay as a genre of writing that requires researching a topic, collecting and analyzing evidence, and establishing an attitude to an issue chosen. In other words, the purpose of the essay is to express your stance on a matter and persuade readers. Unlike a verbal argument where we tend to be emotional and use subjective reasons for dispute, argumentative essays are rational, detailed, and supported by factual evidence. For your writing to be convincing you have to provide logical arguments underpinned with facts. Consider the following step-by-step guide for writing an argumentative essay: Choose a topic that you find will help you win the argument. It could be a burning issue or something that exercises your mind. In case you are all at sea, look for argumentative essay prompts online. The first stage of any argumentative essay preparation involves doing research. Whether your topic is on banning death penalty or addiction to smartphones, read up on the subject. Gather factual information that will help your arguments be compelling. Sometimes you might need to convey a survey to find out what the majority of people think about the issue and use it as a fact. Prior to writing itself create an outline for argumentative essay. Select key arguments that come to your mind and think how to build paragraphs around them. Write down the arguments using bullet points. A few words about the length. Usually an argumentative essay consists of 5 paragraphs . However, if you are writing on a topic that requires empirical research and has a list of references, your essay might have more paragraphs. It all depends on the assignment. Structure your essay logically. A) Argumentative essay introduction must contain a clear thesis statement which should give an idea about your topic and your attitude towards the issue raised. It is also advised to mention opposing opinions existing on the subject or give some background information in the first paragraph. B) Main body paragraphs must provide evidential support to your thesis statement. Ideally you should create a separate paragraph for every single argument you have. Start with the least convincing one and as you progress with your writing, use harder facts. Make reference to the sources of your information. Proceed from one paragraph to another logically and culminate with the strongest point of your argument. You can appeal to reader’s emotions by mentioning your personal experience or testimonies of people who participated in your survey. This works as a powerful tool for persuasion. A good argumentative essay foresees existence of the opposing views. That is, as a writer you have to be proactive. What counterarguments can your opponents have? Try to overcome their objections by making strong points and refuting them. C) In your conclusion go back to your key points, concisely summarize what has been said in the main body and restate your thesis statement taking into consideration your evidence. Do not forget that your objective is to convince the reader, so make that final statement powerful. Keep in mind that logical transitions are of utmost importance in argumentative essays. Make sure that your writing is composed logically and every paragraph has its focal point that relates to a preceding and the following parts of your essay. Proofread the essay. Go through it with a fine comb. Look for typos and grammatical errors. Make sure that the writing meets all of the assignment requirements and has an academic register. Check that the headings and subheadings are in place, references are made the proper way. Argumentative essay conclusion As you can see writing and argumentative essay is not that easy and requires a thorough research, brainstorming, analytical thinking, eloquence and assertion. It can be compared to preparing for debates. You cannot complete it without doing a proper research that involves a lot of reading and sometimes case study work. If you do not have enough time for that, struggle with the logical transition from one paragraph to another or eloquence is not your strongest point, you can apply to the professional writing services. Qualified English-speaking writers can do all the work for you from doing research to writing a powerful argumentative essay. In case you need editing and proofreading services, they can help you with that as well. You can choose the writer you like and discuss the details of your assignment so that every requirement is met. Set a deadline, and a professional will send the essay on time. In the end you get a peerless argumentative essay and an excellent grade for it. If for some reason you are dissatisfied with the work you receive, the majority of services will offer your money back. Why struggle if you can hire a professional?

Thursday, May 21, 2020

Reality Television Is Good For Us - 950 Words

Television is one of the most accessible sources available to citizens. And with reality T.V, it changed the television industry forever. In today s society, Reality Television plays an important role in people s everyday lives. Jeremy W. Peters, the author of â€Å"When Reality TV Gets Too Real† argued that there should be a limit for how far an reality T.V should go. While James Poniewozik the author of â€Å"Why Reality TV Is Good for Us† said that reality T.V was the best thing to happen to television. Some might say television is bad for the society, and some might disagree with that, but reality T.V has proven to be the best thing that ever happened to television. Television was not at its best a decade ago, producers were struggling trying to figure out how it can reach to a broad audience and have them stay. Thanks to reality T.V, the television industry has not been the same ever since. Reality TV always get its viewers on the edge of their chair, from shows like The Bachelor, to other shows like Intervention, â€Å"all of them make you sit up and pay attention† (Poniewozik 1). Reality TV shows will do whatever it takes to get people to watch them. From a simple show called The Bachelor talking about love stories, to a show where they show a life of drug addict. They all presents a stories within, and sending a message to its viewers. What makes the viewer watches the show is the messages that the reality tv show trying to reach to its viewers. For the past couple of year,Show MoreRelatedThe Reality Television Is Good For Us?970 Words   |  4 Pagesincrease, more televisions are being produced over time, which means networks and media producers are more active in finding ways to captivate the attention of their viewers such as the production of reality TV. With the existence of reality TV, people continue to question and discuss how influential and real actually it is. In James Poniewozik’s article â€Å"Why Reality TV Is Good for Us?†, he demonstrates how reality TV has evolved to become one of the most popular genres on television today, while inRead MoreThe Reality Of Reality Television882 Words   |  4 Pages What is it about these reality shows such as: Keeping Up with the Kardashians, Bad Girls Club, and The Real Housewives that we cannot stop watching? After watching reality shows like this, it leaves people craving the next episode of the next week. Reality television producers are exploiting people by giving the public a â€Å"sense† of reality but not the real version of it, but rather exploit people and use stereotypes to make money for entertainment. The specific points of this argumentRead MoreThe Television Show Gossip Girl1576 Words   |  7 Pages Including lots of technical events does help to make television shows more esthetically pleasing, but there is more to it than just a prettier picture. For this part of the experiment I watched the television s how Gossip Girl. The entire time I watch the episode I was constantly marking down technical events. Technical events affect out perception of reality. It might sound strange, but by using technical events the production companies are tricking our brains to believe that life happens in smallRead MoreThe Entertainment Industry Essay1623 Words   |  7 Pagesseeing who wore it best when you open up a magazine just because it gives us something to do on our spare time. What makes us mold our behavior and thinking when it comes to entertainment is how you stay true to yourself and not let the tabloids and television shows change the person you originally were. Mass entertainment has determined the type of people who are in our society in a negative light by the reality television shows and social media being involved in our everyday lives. The commonRead MoreReality Tv1076 Words   |  5 Pagesthe media, reality TV stars like Snooki and Kim Kardashian are on the rise. Most channels on television have at least one reality show, from following housewives to remodeling homes of real life families. However, there are some reality programs that display bad examples, especially for young audiences that are keeping up with each episode. On MTV people see girls being drunk in public, addicts doing drugs, and young girls raising babies at young ages; these are situations seen on reality TV showsRead MoreEssay about Media: Making Society Go Downward1172 Words   |  5 PagesIt seems as if it doesn’t take much to amuse us now days. It is apparent that entertainment, specifically television, has changed drastically. All three of the articles discussed the change of television through the years. They all had interesting views and debated well. The article that I chose to discuss is â€Å"Reality television: Oxymoron† by George F. Will. â€Å"America is becoming increasingly desensitized. Entertainment seeking a mass audience is ratcheting up the violence, sexuality, and degradationRead MoreReality Television : A Psychological Case Study Of Social And Human Behavior850 Words   |  4 PagesSurvivor, created in 1992, is British television producer Charlie Parsons’ contribution to a reality television show that feeds the voyeuristic hunger of viewers. Reality television offers a psychological case study in social and human behaviour in their most vulnerable state. The genre exploits the privacy of contestants and often showcase human traits of deception, manipulation, trickery, betrayal and justification. In fact, reality television allows ordinary individuals to gaze at others muchRead MoreThe Truman Show By Peter Weir Essay1236 Words   |  5 PagesThe movie’s message to us is that we are stuck in a media landscape full of fantasies that is catered to the interests of more powerful people. If we want to live an authentic life and be free, we should put distance between ourselves and the comfort that is our media filled culture. We have to leave the safety that is the media’s grasp and be willing to live in the world the way it actually is. In the 1990’s, television culture in particular was in full swing. Television is such a powerful toolRead MoreChoosing Reality 1149 Words   |  5 PagesWhat we as a society watch on television really depends on the choices we make. George F. Will writes in his article â€Å"Reality Television: Oxymoron† of an increasingly infantilized society, whose moral philosophy is reducible to the celebration of â€Å"choice†, where adults are decreasingly distinguishable from children in their absorption in entertainments. This is a society in which â€Å"choice† exceeds all others and competition improves things. This society is built upon choice in every aspect of lifeRead MoreReality Te levision Program1229 Words   |  5 PagesWhen people turn on their televisions at home or they are watching television somewhere else, they will possibly find a reality show somewhere. Reality television shows have been on television for numerous years and are changing. Although reality television is wildly entertaining and popular, many young teens and adults look up to their favorite reality show actors and their lavish lifestyles and overdramatic antics. People who watch reality television regularly have different expectations and views

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Escape Theme in Sonny’s Blues and The Adventures of...

Escape in â€Å"Sonny’s Blues† by James Baldwin and Huck in The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain Both the narrator in â€Å"Sonny’s Blues† by James Baldwin and Huck in The Adventures of Huckleberry Finn by Mark Twain feel the urge to escape from their reality as a means of attaining happiness and finding their way in life. However, their reasons for escaping are completely different and so are the ways in which they manage to do so. The aim of this essay is, therefore, to discuss the how and why the Narrator in â€Å"Sonny’s Blues† and Huck escape. We will start by briefly looking into both characters’ backgrounds in order to be able to understand the reasons and circumstances that led them to escape. First, it is worth mentioning†¦show more content†¦Given a short account of their social backgrounds, it is not surprising that they be driven by different urges to escape the situation in which they are. On the one hand, the Narrator in â€Å"Sonny’s Blues† is evidently trying to escape the black people’s burden which is illustrated in the following excerpt: â€Å" So we drove along [...] killing streets of our childhood. These streets hadn’t changed, though a housing project jutted up out of them now like rocks in the middle of a boiling sea. Most of the houses in which we had grown up had vanished, as had the stores from which we had stolen, the basements in which we had first tried sex, the rooftops from which we had hurled tin cans and bricks† . He does so by neglecting his i dentity, that is to say, his roots, and clinging to the white community’s conventions and lifestyle. However, he seems unaware of the fact that what he is escaping from, is his identity rather than a mere place or situation. He says: â€Å"It might be said, perhaps, that I had escaped after all, I was a school teacher...† In fact, he not only escapes by becoming a school teacher but he also does so by identifying himself with classical music, which seems to him the only acceptable type, even to the extent of ignoring completely, for example , who Charlie Parker, father of the modern jazz style, is. Huck Finn, on the other hand, rejecting being civilized by widow Douglas andShow MoreRelatedHow to Read Lit Like a Prof Notes3608 Words   |  15 Pagesgood, being based on Hamlet won’t save it. 6. When in Doubt, It’s from Shakespeare†¦ a. Writers use what is common in a culture as a kind of shorthand. Shakespeare is pervasive, so he is frequently echoed. b. See plays as a pattern, either in plot or theme or both. Examples: i. Hamlet: heroic character, revenge, indecision, melancholy nature ii. Henry IV—a young man who must grow up to become king, take on his responsibilities iii. Othello—jealousy iv. Merchant of Venice—justice vs. mercy v. King Lear—aging

Mscquiz1 Free Essays

Chapter one – A The U. S, and indeed much of the world, has been described as a â€Å"knowledge society. † How does this affect productivity measurement and comparison of productivity between the U. We will write a custom essay sample on Mscquiz1 or any similar topic only for you Order Now S. and other countries? Illustrate with an example. Productivity is the ratio of out puts (goods and services) divided by inputs (resources and capital). The creation of goods and services requires changing resources into goods and services; the more efficiently we make this change, the more productive we are, and the more value is added to the good or services provided. By applying the ten decisions of operation management (om) help us to be efficient: developing and using the correct strategy helps us to be effective. The measurement of productivity is an important way to evaluate a country’s ability to provide a high stander of living for its people. Only through the increase of productivity, improve the stander living, and labor, capital and management receive high salary. When productivity increase using the same resources, the prices will go down, and if labor and capital increase without increase in productivity raises the prices. The U. S has been able to increase productivity at an average rate of almost 2. 55 per year which has double the U. S. ‘s wealth every 30 years. Three factors are important in improving the productivity; such as, labor, capital, and management. In order to improve the labor productivity, the labor force should be better utilized with a stronger commitment; training, motivation, team building and human resource strategies, and improved education are some of the techniques which contribute to increase productivity. The effective sue of capital increase the productivity, and management accounts for over half of the annual increase productivity. The postindustrial societies are known as knowledge societies, and using knowledge and technology are essential in postindustrial societies. In these societies much of the labor force has migrated form manual work to technical and information processing tasks require on going education. Compare to other industrialized countries, the U. S. remains the world leader in overall productivity and services productivity; despite having the same problems with service productivity as other countries. The productivity challenge is difficult. A country cannot be world class competitor with second class inputs such as poorly educated labor insufficient capital, and dated technology. High productivity and high quality out puts require high quality inputs, including good operation managers. Since education is foundation to efficient operation in a technological society, countries are focusing on highly skilled workforce which is essential for global competitiveness. Example: From the text Siemens, the multi-billion-dollar German conglomerate, has long been known for its apprentice programs in its home country. Due to education is often the key to efficient operations in a technological society, Siemens has spread its apprentice-training programs to its U. S. plants. These programs are laying the foundation for the highly skilled workforce that is essential for global competitiveness. Chapter One – B David Upton is president of Upton Manufacturing, a producer of G0-kart tires. Upton makes 1,000 tires per day with the following resources: Labor:400 hours at $12. 50 per hour Raw Material:20,000 pounds per day at $1 per pound Energy:$5,000 per day Capital:$10,000 per day . What is the labor productivity for these tires at Upton manufacturing? Productivity = units of output hours of labor Productivity = 1,000 400 = 2. 5 units per labor hours b. What is the multi-factor productivity for these tires at Upton manufacturing? 400 * 12. 50 = $5,000 a day Productivity = _______ _Output__________________ _______ Labor+ material +Energy+ Capital+ Miscellaneous = _____________ 1,000_______________ ____ $5,000 + $20,000 + $5,000 + $10,000 + 0 = 1,000 units $40,000 = 0. 25 unit per $ c. What is the percent change in multi-factor productivity if Upton can reduce the energy bill by $1,000 without cutting production or changing any other inputs? Productivity = _______ _Output__________________ _______ Labor+ material +Energy+ Capital+ Miscellaneous = _____________ 1,000___________________ $5,000 + $20,000 + $4,000 + $10,000 + 0 = 1,000 units $39,000 = 0. 02564 units per $ Percentage Change in multi-factor productivity = 0. 02564 0. 025 = 1. 0256 or 2. % Chapter Two –A In order to sustain a competitive advantage, restaurants must employ one the following three strategies: 1. ) Cost leadership; 2. ) Response; and 3. ) differentiation. Give one original example (one not mentioned in the text) of each of three restaurant chains that you could associate with each one of these strategies. (Use a fast food restaurant for only one of your three examples. Strategy is an organization ’s action plan to achieve the mission: the strategy exploits opportunities and strengths neutralize threads and avoid weaknesses. The firms achieve missions in three conceptual ways: differentiation, cost leadership, and response which mean that operations managers are abele to deliver goods and services that are better, or at least different, cheaper and more responsive. The three strategic concepts can generate a system that has a unique advantage over competitors, and provides an opportunity for operations managers to achieve competitive advantage. Differentiation is concerned with providing uniqueness: a firm’s opportunities for creating uniqueness are not located with a particular function or activity, but can arise in virtually everything that firm does. The opportunities creating this uniqueness are limited only by imagination due to most products include some service, and most services include some products. So, effective operations mangers assist in defining everything about product or services that will influence the potential value to the customers. Example: In Differentiation, the best example that will fit the description would be Illusitions (Thai Cuisine) where you sit around a big pan in the middle and they cook the food in front of you which takes about 10-15 minutes. The difference is the uniqueness of the style of cooking. I have heard that in Thailand, the food is eaten when it’s very hot. So by having a big pan in the middle, kind of brings the essence of Thai food. They also provide the samples of different foods for you to try. Cost leadership entails achieving maximum value as defined by the customers. It requires examining each of the ten operations management decision in a relentless effort to drive down costs while meeting customer expectations of value: a low cost strategy does not imply low value or low quality. Example: The best example which can fit in the description of Cost leadership is McDonald. They provide fast food in low prices which are unbeatable and provide an exceptional quality. They have grown tremendously in few years in national and international perspective. They are the one of the largest fast food chains in US and other countries. Response is define as including the entire range of values related to timely product development and delivery, as well as reliable scheduling and flexible performance. Flexible response is ability to match change in a marketplace where design innovations and volumes fluctuate substantially. The reliability of scheduling is another aspect of response: it manifests it self in reliable scheduling and it has value to end customers. Quickness is an other aspect of response; the operation mangers who develop system that respond quickly can have a competitive advantage. The operation management can increase productivity and generate a sustainable competitive advantage. Example: The restaurant that I think is suitable for this criterion is Olive garden. They serve with love and tradition. It has a different environment then any other restaurants. It gives a very cozy feeling. The people eat there are mostly families. Chapter Two – B In your own words (i. e. , not using sentences or phrases taken form the text or other resources), explain the difference between an international strategy and a transnational strategy. Identify on company (not mentioned in the text) that employs an international strategy and one that employs a transnational strategy. The difference between the international strategy and transnational strategy is that international strategy is on international level. The company takes its products to a different country and launches it in that country. They introduce their product in a different country where the competition is low and also the costs are low. Some companies have their raw products come from a different country where they pay less for their purchases. Some companies such as Whirlpool started out in a US state Michigan which now has more than 50 plants in different countries that make washing machines, refrigerators, and stoves. The biggest reason is the cost and cheap labor. On the other hand, transitional strategy is when a US company takes its products to a different state where their competitors are few and also the product margin is high and costs are low. In the field of Transitional strategy, one of the most common examples is Wal-Mart. They are dominating the market because they have low prices and acceptable quality. They have different plants in different states in US. They compete with their competitors in every way which is cost, quality, and expediency. They buy goods from different states in US and other countries. How to cite Mscquiz1, Essay examples

Friday, April 24, 2020

The movement of the Japanese Yen relative to the US dollar

Abstract Over past three decades, Japanese Yen has fluctuated significantly against the U.S dollar. It was stronger during the 80s to the early 90s, but this value has been deteriorating since mid 90s to date.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The movement of the Japanese Yen relative to the US dollar specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Japanese government intervened in many occasions in their foreign exchange market to attain unjust advantage in the global world market. However, these interventions were only felt in the short run but failed to avert the direction of the Yen in the long-run. In addition, these interventions had negligible effect on the prices of Japanese commodities in the U.S market. Introduction The current global financial market is dominated by allegations that some countries are trying to manipulate their exchange rates using unjust means. The major culprit at the present is China, although the s ame allegations were made against Japan (Vikas Yan 2006). Governments often intervene in the currency market by buying foreign exchange-mostly the major global currencies- in order to increase the demand for these currencies and consequently their values relative to their domestic currency. On the other hand, they can sell these major foreign currencies to reduce their demand in the currency market thus increasing the value of their domestic currency. In the case of Japan, it has often bought U.S. dollars from its local exporters in exchange for their domestic currency (Japanese Yen) and utilizes the dollars to purchase American securities and liquid assets (Cashin et al. 2004). U.S government has a lot of interest in the global currency manipulations, interventions and unjust alignment, since it has considerable repercussions on their economy. Unfair manipulation of the exchange rates to underrate global currencies can raise the US trade deficit, increase their dependency on forei gn investors to finance this deficit, thus affects their interest rates and their competitive advantage in the global trade. Japan has always timed when the dollar’s value is declining relative to Yen to purchase U.S securities and liquid assets. The main aim of doing this was to stabilize the value of Yen and preventing the prices of their exports from increasing in US markets and to maintain their exports’ profitability (Vikas Yan 2006). Yen’s ascension started significantly started after the signing of the Plaza Accord in 1985 by the major industrial economies at that time. It marked two distinct periods. The first part was between 1980s to early 90s where recession led to a very strong yen. The second section lies between mid 90s to date where the real exchange rate of the Yen has been depreciating significantly resulting to a deteriorated balance of trade between Japan and U.S (Rasmus Hutchinson, 2003).Advertising Looking for essay on business econo mics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Japanese interventions in the foreign exchange market Global financial analyst argued that Japan has undervalued their currency more than 20%. If this is the case, then it gives Japanese manufacturers upper hand pricewise over their American competitors. The greatest victim of the Yen undervaluation is the U.S automobile industry. The headquarter of the U.S automobile industry claimed that these gave price advantage of approximately 4000 dollars per car manufactured in Japan as compared to U.S . It enhanced the sale of Japanese cars in the American market. Figure 1 in the appendix shows the trend of the Japanese real effective exchange rate relative to the dollar from 1973 to 2006 (Vikas Yan 2006). International economists argue that currency interventions for large economies with floating exchange rates such as Japan only works for a short run and have diminutive effect on the long run. Some experts believe that even without manipulations, Japans share of the foreign exchange will still remain since it earns by investing in the US securities and other liquid assets. In 2006, Japan earned more ($40 billion) on its total investment in US than what the US earned on its investment in Japan. Japanese government interventions in the currency market took place in late 70s to 2004. Since then, Japanese government has never intervened very much in the foreign exchange market to affect the value of the dollar as illustrated in figure 2 in the appendix (Vikas Yan 2006). Currency values and Trade This section explains the impact of the yen-dollar exchange rates on the imports and exports. Theoretically, Japanese interventions in the foreign exchange market was aimed at undervaluing Yen, thus makes their exports cheaper. This should have enabled Japan to either reduce the price of their exports or maintain it while making more profits. Lower export prices and higher import prices r esults into surplus in the balance of trade and therefore increases economic growth. In reality, the functioning of the foreign exchange market is different from the theoretical perspective. To be specific, the long run relation between government interventions and foreign exchange market is difficult to demonstrate practically (Koujianou Knetter 1997). Japanese automobile manufacturers and other exporters to the U.S market do not adjust their prices in response to short run fluctuations in the exchange rates. There prices are set according to the prevailing commodity market conditions and long-run financial market conditions.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on The movement of the Japanese Yen relative to the US dollar specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More For example, between 1994 to early 1995, Japanese Yen rose by 34% against the dollar meaning that the prices of Japanese goods in U.S market should have followed the same trend. However, Toyota sticker prices only appreciated by 2% while the prices of Sony TV sets dropped by 15%. Conclusion Since early 70s to date, the value of Japanese Yen has fluctuated significantly against the U.S dollar. The value of Yen was relatively stable during 70s to early 80s. Yen’s ascension started significantly after the signing of the Plaza Accord in 1985 by the major industrial economies at that time. The fluctuations in the value of yen forced the Japanese government to intervene in the foreign exchange market. However, these interventions only succeeded in the short run but failed to avert the direction of the Yen in the long-run. References Cashin, P., Luis F. C., Ratna, S. 2004. Commodity Currencies and the Real Exchange Rate. Journal of Development Economics, vol. 75, pp. 239-68. Koujianou, G. P., Knetter, M. M. 1997. Goods Prices and Exchange Rates: What Have We Learned? Journal of Economic Literature, vol. 35, pp. 1244-1270. Rasmus, F., Hutchin son, M.M. 2003. Effectiveness of Official Daily Foreign Exchange Market Intervention Operations in Japan. National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper 9648, p. 1-5. Vikas, K., Yan, I. 2006. Real Exchange Rates and Productivity: Evidence fromAdvertising Looking for essay on business economics? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Asia. Mimeo: University of Hong Kong press. Appendices Figure 1: Japanese Real Effective Exchange rate Figure 2: Japan’s Exchange Rate and Foreign Exchange Reserves since 1972 to 2006 This essay on The movement of the Japanese Yen relative to the US dollar was written and submitted by user Giselle Marsh to help you with your own studies. You are free to use it for research and reference purposes in order to write your own paper; however, you must cite it accordingly. You can donate your paper here.